The T-90 (Ob.188) MBT is the most modern tank currently in service with the Russian Army. It is a direct descendant of the T-72 MBT (in fact, a renaming of T-72BU) although every single system including the main gun has received a major upgrade.
The T-90 tank retains the basic national tank design concept, i.e. the classical layout, where the main armament is arranged within a rotating turret, the propulsion plant and transmission are located in the hull's rear, and the crew members are seated separately: the commander and the gunner sit in the fighting compartment, and the driver in the driver's compartment.
In addition to the basic model, the T-90K command variant is fielded, and differs in radio and navigational equipment, as well as the Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds.
The T-90 MBT, though the best armored and equipped of all Russian tanks, is only a stop-gap measure in conditions where the acceptance of a brand-new Nizhny Tagil MBT is delayed due to lack of funding.
The year 1999 saw the appearance of a new model of T-90, that features a fully welded turret instead of a cast one carried by the original T-90. This new model is called "Vladimir" in honour of T-90 Chief Designer Vladimir Potkin, who died in 1999. It is unknown how this design affects the protection and layout of the turret, and whether the frontal armor package was also extensively redesigned.
The contract is signed to ship 350 T-90 MBTs to India. These tanks will probably have an original cast turret, but their powerpack is replaced with a new 1000hp V-92S2 Chelyabinsk diesel. There are reports that these tanks will also feature advanced thermals.
T-90S at firing range
Dimensions: L9,530/6,860 x W3,780 x H2,226 x 492 clearance Weight: 46.5 .. 50 metric tons Armored volume: 11.04 cub.m of which, turret: 1.85 cub.m Crew: 3 Engine: 840 hp V-84MS diesel or 1,000 hp V-92S2 diesel 1 kW AB-1-P28 auxiliary power unit Max Road Speed: 65 km/h Max X-country Speed: 45 km/h Power/Weight: 18 .. 20.0 hp/tn Ground Pressure: 0.91 kg/sq.cm Range: 550 .. 650 km Obstacle negotiation: Fording depth: 1.2 m on the move/5 m with OPVT (snorkel) Trench width: 2.8 m Vertical obstacle: 0.85 m Maximum gradient: 30° Maximum tilt: 30° Weapons Main Weapon: 125mm 2A46M-2 smoothbore Stabilization: 2E42-4 Zhasmin Rate of fire: 6-8 rounds/min Ammunition: 43 rounds (22 in carousel) Ammunition Types: APFSDS, HEAT, HEF ATGM through 125mm: 9M119M Refleks-M (AT-11 Sniper-B) Machine Guns: Coaxial PKT 7.62mm (2000 rounds) Remotely-controlled AAMG mount Utjos NSVT 12.7mm (300 rounds) Smoke Screens: 12 902B 82mm mortars with 3D17 smoke grenades smoke discharger Equipment Night Vision: TO1-PO2T Agava-2 TI (target id range 2.5 km) or TPN-4-49-23 Buran-PA (target id range 1.2/1.5 km) Fire Control: 1A45T Irtysh computerized system with 9S515 missile guidance system Onboard sights and accuracy aids: Commander: PNK-4S complex includes TKN-4S Agat-S day/night sight (target id range 800 m (day)/700 m (night)) Gunner: 1V528-1 ballistic computer 1A43 rangefinder/sight 1G46 laying device DVE-BS wind gauge Driver: TVN-5 IR night viewer Radio: R-163-50U R-163-50U + R-163-50K (T-90K) Navigation: TNA-4-3 (T-90K) Jammers: Shtora-1 EOCMDAS Dazzle painting Other: NBC pressurization system, GO-27 NBC recon system, 3ETs13 Inej auto-fire-fighting equipment, self-dig-in blade, OPVT deep fording equipment, mine clearing equipment (optional) Front & side armor laminated; front, side and top armor behind Kontakt-5 ERA Armor rating, mm RHA: Front turret 54..76cm vs APFSDS; 80..122cm vs HEAT Glacis 69±2cm vs APFSDS; 94±4cm HEAT details...